Wednesday, 25 May 2016

“People were always getting ready for tomorrow. I didn’t believe in that. Tomorrow wasn’t getting ready for them. It didn’t even know they were there.”


           A model commentary to Cormac McCarthy's quotation (The Road, 2007), courtesy of Maria Inês.

 O excerto apresentado pertence a uma fala da personagem Ely num momento em que este questiona duas noções bastante importantes na literatura e pensamento americanos que se encontram interligadas. Primeiro, o conceito do “amanhã/manhã” como espaço de recomeço e possibilidade. Segundo, a ideia de que cada indivíduo no espaço americano importa e que pode realmente fazer a diferença, “It didn’t even know they were there.” Desta forma, dois importantes conceitos são questionados através da personagem Ely.
            Esta desconfiança e questionamento de grandes narrativas, típicos do pós-modernismo, podem ser encontrados em outras obras da literatura pós-modernista americana como, por exemplo, “This Property is Condemned” de Tennessee Williams. Nesta obra, o tema da mobilidade e fluidez social, da moralidade e inocência sulistas, e dos fortes valores familiares são questionados ao sermos brevemente apresentados a Willie e à história da sua família, condenada a viver numa propriedade onde qualquer oportunidade de mudança acaba frustrada.
            Um outro exemplo, em que a Verdade é relativizada, é no conto “Recitatif” de Toni Morrison. Onde a narrativa é condicionada pela percepção de quem a constrói, mostrando que não existe uma única Verdade, mas diversas Verdades. Neste conto, o mesmo evento é relatado cinco vezes distintas, sempre de forma diferente, acrescentado ou alterando certos detalhes, demonstrando como o passado é apenas uma narrativa construída subjectivamente.
            Por fim, um outro exemplo literário, que explicitamente questiona as narrativas construídas em volta do passado, é o texto “After Life” de Joan Didion. Nesta “memoir”, Didion expõe a natureza duvidosa/incerta do passado que constrói, colocando o leitor numa posição em que este(a) se encontra consciente de que a narrativa apresentada é uma construção profundamente marcada pela experiência emocional da autora dos eventos relatados. Esta “re-evaluation of and a dialogue with the past in the light of the present” (Hutcheon, 1988) é tornada clara no texto de Didion através da utilização de expressões de modalização e metalinguagem, “I considered adding these words” (Didion, 2005).
            Para concluir, no excerto apresentado, o mesmo questionamento proveniente de uma atitude de relativização e desconfiança perante grandes narrativas pode ser encontrado, pois duas importantes noções para a construção da América como conceito estão a ser questionadas. Tal como nas três obras já mencionadas, Cormac McCarthy utiliza o conceito do “amanhã” para o subverter, assim como desacredita a ideia da excepcionalidade e potencialidade do indivíduo nos EUA.
Nota: O excerto citado de Linda Hutcheon provém da sua obra A Poetics of Modernism (1988).

Monday, 9 May 2016

Feminist Waves, Historical Landmarks

A very good site on Feminism, where you might be especially interested in the division between the 3 waves of feminism: http://www.gender.cawater-info.net/knowledge_base/rubricator/feminism_e.htm


1st Wave
1848: Lucretia Mott e Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention

1919: passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote in all states.


------
1953: Publication of the English translation of Simone Beauvoir's The Second Sex (1949) - "one is not born a woman, one becomes a woman"


2nd Wave
1963: Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique

1966: Twenty-eight women founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) to function as a civil rights organization for women. 

1968:  Robin Morgan led members of New York Radical Women to protest the Miss America Pageant of 1968, which they decried as sexist and racist

1971: Adrienne Rich, "When we Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision"; Mary Daly, Beyond God the Father
 
1972: Maria Velho da Costa, Maria Isabel Barreno, Maria Teresa Horta, Novas Cartas Portuguesas

1974: Camille Paglia, Sexual Personae
-----------------
 
 1979: Margaret Thatcher, first female prime minister in the UK

1985: Guerrilla Girls






3rd Wave
The third wave has its origins in the mid-1980s. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherrie Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other black feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities.


Homework for May 12, 2016

Read the poems "Diving into the Wreck" and "Power" by Adrienne Rich, in your anthology, and comment on any of them, with relations to the essay "When We Dead Awaken" (but not only, of course)




Adrienne Rich (1929-2012)

Adrienne Rich, part VII of the sequence "Sources" in

VII
 
For years I struggled with you: your categories, your theories, your will, the cruelty which came inextricable from your love. For years all arguments I carried on in my head were with you. I saw myself, the eldest daughter raised as a son, taught to study but not to pray, taught to hold reading and writing sacred: the eldest daughter in a house with no son, she who must overthrow the father, take what he taught her and use it against him. All this in a castle of air, the floating world of the assimilated who know and deny they will always be aliens.
 
After your death I met you again as the face of patriarchy, could name at last precisely the principle you embodied, there was an ideology at last which let me dispose of you, identify the suffering you caused, hate you righteously as part of a system, the kingdom of the fathers. I saw the power and arrogance of the male as your true watermark; I did not see beneath it the suffering of the Jew, the alien stamp you bore, because you had deliberately arranged that it should be invisible to me. It is only, under a powerful, womanly lens, that I can decipher your suffering and deny no part of my own.



In Your Native Land, Your Life: Poems (1986)

Adrienne Rich, "Planetarium" (1971)

Thinking of Caroline Herschel (1750—1848)
astronomer, sister of William; and others.

A woman in the shape of a monster   
a monster in the shape of a woman   
the skies are full of them

a woman      ‘in the snow
among the Clocks and instruments   
or measuring the ground with poles’

in her 98 years to discover   
8 comets

she whom the moon ruled   
like us
levitating into the night sky   
riding the polished lenses

Galaxies of women, there
doing penance for impetuousness   
ribs chilled   
in those spaces    of the mind

An eye,

          ‘virile, precise and absolutely certain’
          from the mad webs of Uranusborg

                                                            encountering the NOVA   

every impulse of light exploding

from the core
as life flies out of us

             Tycho whispering at last
             ‘Let me not seem to have lived in vain’

What we see, we see   
and seeing is changing

the light that shrivels a mountain   
and leaves a man alive

Heartbeat of the pulsar
heart sweating through my body

The radio impulse   
pouring in from Taurus

         I am bombarded yet         I stand

I have been standing all my life in the   
direct path of a battery of signals
the most accurately transmitted most   
untranslatable language in the universe
I am a galactic cloud so deep      so invo-
luted that a light wave could take 15   
years to travel through me       And has   
taken      I am an instrument in the shape   
of a woman trying to translate pulsations   
into images    for the relief of the body   
and the reconstruction of the mind.

Saturday, 7 May 2016

Closing Statement - Cormac McCarthy's The Road is a disillusioned book, offering little hope for redemption (Gonçalo and Olga)


Gostaríamos de lembrar que ao longo de séculos de história da humanidade e de literatura, se esperaram e escreveram vários apocalipses. Alguns exemplos foram a peste durante a Idade Média, o fatídico ano 2000 que levou ao suicídio de inúmeras pessoas por temerem o desconhecido, as próprias grandes guerras Mundiais, foram encaradas como o fim da Humanidade como a reconhecemos e até a Bíblia fala em apocalipse e como procurar o caminho para a redenção. Existe assim também um conceito de Pessimismo Cultural, um seguimento do declínio da humanidade que se torna a certo ponto irreversível. No entanto, todos estes obstáculos foram ultrapassados por se acreditar na fé das pessoas, fosse ela religiosa ou apenas interior em como algo de bom poderia acontecer. Seguir o “caminho dos bons” não é mais do que ser fiel a valores e éticas que nos são transmitidos por qualquer sociedade. Para ultrapassar todos estes obstáculos, as pessoas tiveram de se unir e ser solidárias. Manter a esperança é a forma de caminhar para a redenção; logo, sem esperança, resta a exaustão.
Nietzche propõe que cada um deve ter os seus próprios valores e ser julgado de acordo com os mesmos. Perante os dilemas morais e na ausência de Deus, o Homem e o Rapaz são os criadores do seu próprio significado de sagrado. “Where you’ve nothing else construct the ceremonies out of the air and breathe upon them.”
Acreditamos por isso que The Road poderia ter um caminho diferente caso o pai não se tivesse desviado dos seus valores morais e tivesse posto em prática aqueles que ensinou ao filho através das suas histórias. Desta forma, talvez no final o pai acompanhasse o filho no caminho para a redenção e não falecesse pelo cansaço como tantos outros na estrada.

Tuesday, 3 May 2016

End of the World Disaster Theories


End of the World Disaster Theories
 Particle Accelerators
Physicists have long theorized that particle accelerators could destroy the earth. When electric fields are used to accelerate protons they could collide at speed fast enough to create black holes or bits of altered matter. These small black holes would slowly engulf our planet. The pieces of altered matter, called strangeletes, would destroy any ordinary matter they came in contact with, eventually annihilating the entire planet. Although most scientists assure that none of the particle accelerators being used at the present are strong enough to bring about these events they are unsure of the abilities of the newest accelerator being built. Currently, over two-thousand physicists from thirty-four countries, universities and laboratories are aiding in the construction of The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located near Geneva, Switzerland. It is scheduled to begin experimentation in May 2008. It is hoped that if black holes are produced they will be small enough to evaporate, but only time will tell.
 

Rogue Black Holes
Although the concept of black holes was conceived in 1915 by Einstein (some may argue earlier) they were not accepted as fact until Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose proved their existence in 1970. From this point on black holes have been looked at with a sense of awe and fear; a place from which nothing can escape, not even light. Even scarier is the fact that our galaxy is full of collapsed stars waiting to turn into black holes, some astronomers estimate there are as many as 10 million. Luckily, most black holes are in orbit around other astronomical masses. However, if one of these black holes was able to pull itself away from orbit and head towards earth we would be clueless since they are almost impossible to see. The black hole wouldn't even have to come very close to earth to wreak havoc, if it even entered our solar system it would distort all planetary orbits causing extreme climate changes, and even expel some planets from the system.

 Gamma-Ray Burst
Gamma-ray bursts are extremely powerful, estimated to have 10 quadrillion times more energy than our sun. They are created by the collision of two collapsed stars. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to visualize collapsed stars making it even more difficult to predict the location of a gamma-ray burst. A burst 1,000 light years from the earth (further away than most of our stars) would create an explosion as bright as our sun and bring a hasty destruction to earth. Although our atmosphere and the ozone would provide protection at first it would soon be cooked away by the radiation. UV rays would kill the photosynthetic plankton in the ocean, which provide most of the earth's oxygen. At least one burst can be seen each day when watching our sky with gamma-ray vision; it can't be too long before there is one closer to home.
 
 Omega Point
This term describes the ultimate maximum level of complexity-consciousness. Philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin believed that the universe is continuously working towards this point. The socialization of humankind, including creating more complex forms of communication and information exchange, increases the collective consciousness of the human race. Just as human beings can self-reflect, one day too the universe will hit the critical Omega Point and the collective consciousness of humankind will be able to reflect upon itself. This divine center of consciousness will draw together the entire universe and end the world as we know it.


Bubble Nucleation
According to the leading cosmological model the universe began as a false vacuum of empty space filled with energy. This incredibly unstable, high-energy state went through the process of bubble nucleation to reach a more stable, lower-energy state. This huge release of energy caused the expansion of the universe. We would like to think that the world we now live in is a stable true vacuum but it is possible that although the universe is at a lower energy level now than it was before, we are living in another false vacuum which could collapse at any moment. If a low energy bubble nucleates in our false vacuum it would expand at the speed of light, once again changing the universe.
Divine Intervention
As with all end of the world theories it's impossible to know if divine intervention is a feasible end of the world scenario. Despite its lack of scientific evidence it gains validity through strong support. Christians look to the Book of Revelation, Jews to the Book of Daniel, and Muslims believe that the coming of Mahdi will bring the end. All religions have a similar story: a divine force will intervene in the world to bring our history to an end and start a new moral order. Even non-believers have something to worry about since some doomsday groups decide to take these matters into their own hands. For example, the Aum Shinri Kyo sect that released Sarin nerve gas into a Tokyo subway station in 1995, killing 12 and injuring more than 5,000. Imagine what would happen if these groups got their hands on more powerful weapons.

Solar Activity (Super-Flares and Decreased Activity)
The sun emits solar flares, also known as coronal mass ejections, towards earth frequently. These flares are large magnetic outbursts which contain high-speed subatomic particles. Luckily, earth's atmosphere and magnetic field protect us from the consequences of these potentially lethal flares. However, evidence has been found that sun-like stars far from our solar system can briefly increase in brightness by 20 times. It is hypothesized that these increases are caused by super-flares, which are millions of times more powerful than the common solar flare. If our sun were to emit one of these super-flares it would literally fry the earth. On the other hand, if our sun's activity were to decrease by a mere 1% (which has been known to happen to many sun-like stars) we would be flung back into another ice age.
Aliens Attack The Earth
The chance of encountering intelligent extraterrestrial life becomes greater every day. As of January 8, 2008, 217 planets have been discovered outside of our solar system and 2-3 new ones are found each month. Famous astronomer Carl Sagan believed there to be billions upon billions of planets in the universe. With such high numbers it is hard, if not impossible, to believe that there is no intelligent life in the universe besides human and that an alien invasion and destruction of Earth is impossible. It is theorized that it would not be a conflict between humans and aliens that would cause lead to our end but that the aliens would exploit Earth for her resources or merely disrupt the planet by mistake.


Global War
Although, tensions between world groups wax and wane causing the public to frequently go from worrying about a global war to forgetting about it, global war is a constant threat. It is believed that there are at least 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world. A malicious use of these weapons or even an accidental nuclear exchange or misfire could be disastrous for the planet. Even more worrisome should be the treat of biological warfare. Using killer germs is cheap, they are also easy to produce and conceal. Even scarier, they can become impossible to control.
Ecosystem Collapse
Our biodiversity is vanishing. At least 30,000 new species become extinct each year, a higher rate than ever before in history. Every single organism on the planet is integrally intertwined with the life of others. To make our life easier in the here and now we are slashing and burning forests, slaughtering animals, transporting organisms from their original ecosystem to others, and introducing synthetic materials into the environment, just to name a few. We are already upsetting the checks and balances of the global ecosystem but have not yet seen a devastating consequence such as the extinction of pollinating insects leading to widespread crop failure and the eventual starvation of humans. Ecologist use the imagery of a "marginal tree," that once cut will throw our planet into chaos to explain the unpredictability of a cataclysmic ecological collapse.




Monday, 2 May 2016

Cormac McCarthy, "Child of God" (1973) - excerpt

THEY WASN’T NONE OF EM any account that I ever heard of. I remember his grandaddy, name was Leland, he was gettin a war pension as a old man. Died back in the late twenties. Was supposed to of been in the Union Army. It was a known fact he didn’t do nothin the whole war but scout the bushes. They come lookin for him two or three times. Hell, he never did go to war. Old man Cameron tells this and I don’t know what cause he’d have to lie. Said they come out there to get Leland Ballard and while they was huntin him in the barn and smokehouse and all he slipped down out of the bushes to where their horses was at and cut the leather off the sergeant’s saddle to halfsole his shoes with.
No, I don’t know how he got that pension. Lied to em, I reckon. Sevier County put more men in the Union Army than it had registered voters but he wasn’t one of em. He was just the only one had brass enough to ast for a pension.
I’ll tell you one thing he was if he wasn’t no soldier. He was a by god White Cap.
O yes. He was that. Had a younger brother was one too that run off from here about that time. It’s a known fact he was hanged in Hattiesburg Mississippi. Goes to show it ain’t just the place. He’d of been hanged no matter where he lived.
I’ll say one thing about Lester though. You can trace em back to Adam if you want and goddamn if he didn’t outstrip em all.
That’s the god’s truth.
Talkin about Lester …
You all talk about him. I got supper waitin on me at the house.

Thursday, 28 April 2016

The Road (2006 by Cormac McCarthy) and The Road (2009 by John Hillcoat) - script for movie seeing

Please post your answers for next class (May 2)

- How does the change of point of view and person of narration alter the reader's perception of the narrated events?

- Compare the openings of both films.

- Is there any scene in the movie that helps you best visualize an event in the novel? Which and why?

Wednesday, 27 April 2016

William Butler Yeats, "The Second Coming" (1919)

Turning and turning in the widening gyre   
The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere   
The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
The best lack all conviction, while the worst   
Are full of passionate intensity.

Surely some revelation is at hand;
Surely the Second Coming is at hand.   
The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out   
When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi
Troubles my sight: somewhere in sands of the desert   
A shape with lion body and the head of a man,   
A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,   
Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it   
Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds.   
The darkness drops again; but now I know   
That twenty centuries of stony sleep
Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,   
And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,   
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?

William Blake, "Nebuchadnezar" in The Marraige of Heaven and Hell

Monday, 18 April 2016

Teresa Alves meets Saul Bellow - April 26

Dear students,

I will be away at the biannual conference of the European Association of American Studies, but on the 26th April we will have a very special class, with Teresa F. A. Alves, my longtime mentor and one of the driving forces behind American Studies at the University of Lisbon (along with her "younger sister", Teresa Cid). Teresa Alves will be speaking about the subject of her PhD thesis, the Nobel Prize Saul Bellow, and about the short story "A Father-to-be" by Saul Bellow (anthology, p. 22)
This is an unmissable event and I hope you all will profit from it.
While you read the short story, please think (or comment below) about:
- character(s) depiction: what is shown and what is told
- mechanisms of irony / humour
- symbolism (settings, characters' names, objects, etc)

Meanwhile, because we will shortly celebrate the 25 the of April, here is a video about one of the most discrete figures of mentor Teresa Alves (as a "Woman of the Revolution" - please don't tell her I posted this): http://www.rtp.pt/noticias/pais/mulheres-protagonistas-em-abril_v733313
and below a photo of dear Saul Bellow


Wednesday, 6 April 2016

Claudia Rankine in Citizen (2014)

Certain moments send adrenaline to the heart, dry out the tongue, and clog the lungs. Like thunder they drown you in sound, no, like lightning they strike you across the larynx. Cough. After it happened I was at a loss for words. Haven't you said this yourself? Haven't you said this to a close friend who early in your friendship, when distracted, would call you by the name of her black housekeeper? You assumed you two were the only black people in her life. Eventually she stopped doing this, though she never acknowledged her slippage. And you never called her on it (why not?) and yet, you don't forget. If this were a domestic tragedy, and it might well be, this would be your fatal flaw—your memory, vessel of your feelings. Do you feel hurt because it's the "all black people look the same" moment, or because you are being confused with another after being so close to this other?

Monday, 4 April 2016

HW 12th April - quotation for commentary practice

"We'll work with anybody, anywhere, at any time, who is genuinely interested in tackling the probem head on, nonviolenty as long as the enemy is nonviolent, but violent when the enemy gets violent. We'll work with you on the voter-registation drive, we'll work with you on rent strikes, we'll work with you on school boycotts — I don't believe in any kind of integration; I'm not even worried about it because I know you're not going to get it anyway. (... ) But we'll work with you on the school boycotts because we are against any segregated school system."
- Malcolm X, "The Ballot or the Bullet" (1964)

African American Affirmation in the US - an overview

1859-65 - Civil War, Slavery Abolished

1870 - 5th Amendment: African American men are granted the right to vote (women would only earn it in the19th Amendment of 1920).

HOWEVER, the conditions to be eligible for voting (ballot-toll, literacy, etc) prevented in practice the majority of Afro-Americans from casting their votes. 

1910 - Foundation of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) with the monthly magazine Crisis 

1914 -
Marcus Garvey establishes the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), whose motto is 'One God, One Aim, One Destiny'. 

1919 - W. E. B. Dubois organizes de Pan-African Congress in Paris

1920-1933 - Prohibition 

1920's: the jazz wave hits Beale Street (Memphis Blues: Armstrong, Muddie Waters, Albert King...)
  1921 - Langston Hughes enrols in Columbia Univ (will leave one year later on account of racial prejudice) and publishes  "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" in Crisis.

1920's: emergência da onda do jazz na Beale Street (Memphis Blues: Armstrong, Muddie Waters, Albert King...)

1922 - Publication of the anthology The Book of American Negro Poetry.

1924 - Countee Cullen wins the Witter Bynner Poetry Competition

1925 - Anthology The New Negro (ed. Alain Locke), with Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston. consecrates the Harlem Renaissance.


1930 - Foundation of the Nation of Islam, associated with Black Nationalism

1934 - Elijah Muhammad directs the Nation of Islam

1937 - Zora Neale Hurston publishes Their Eyes Were Watching God.

1952 - Malcolm X earns parole from prison and 1952, quickly rises to become one of the Nation of Islam's most influential leaders

1954 - Brown v. Board decision declares segregation in public schools illegal. However, desegregation was not a peaceful choice (neither for whites nor blacks, since the former preferred racial balance to open social arrangements of where to study, work, live, etc.)

1955- The Montgomery Bus Boycott begins on December 5 after Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man on the bus.

1957- The Southern Christian Leadership Conference establishes and adopts nonviolent mass action as its cornerstone strategy to gain civil rights and opportunities for blacks. Working initially in the South under the leadership of Martin Luther King, by the mid 1960's King enlarges the organization's focus to address racism in the North.

1963 - March to Washington and "I have a dream" speech.

1964 - Malcolm X delivers "The Ballot or the Bullet" speech, after having parted with the Nation of Islam, but still defending separatism rather than integration.

1965 - On February, Malcolm X is assassinated. On March, blacks begin a march to Montgomery in support of voting rights but are stopped at the Pettus Bridge by a police blockade. Fifty marchers are hospitalized after police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against them. The incident is dubbed "Bloody Sunday" by the media. The march is considered the catalyst for pushing through the voting rights act five months later. 

1968 - Martin Luther King is murdered.





Saturday, 2 April 2016

How to write a comparative essay in literature (and with other arts)

Here is the best link I could find to help you with your writing for your final essay:

http://www.nvcc.edu/home/ataormina/eng256/support/litcompare.htm

I have 3 additions to make, though:

1) focus on grounds of comparison/contrast: don't forget this is a literature class.  As such try to substantiate at least one of your grounds for comparison with a "reading" of a short excerpt or image detail. Close, careful and critical reading is essential in order for you to develop nuanced readings and interpretations, to bring out similarities and differences between the texts (even if visual or musical texts) you are comparing, and to demonstrate your awareness of the forms, patterns, textures, resonances and ideological purposes of language. This might not be easy to do at length in a short essay as this, and you will have higher-order elements to analyse (e. g. plot, character, context) but try just once: for example: does a movie add or omit lines to a crucial dialogue? in which way does this change tone, register, rhetoric strategies?

2) writing methodology: as this is a short essay (1500 words max) you may use either the alternating or block method for comparison

3) your essay should be presented double-spaced, size-12 letter, and your name should be clearly identified, along with title of essay, class and teacher, in compliance with the more detailed formal instructions that you are going to receive by email, and where it is very important to play heed on how to reference bibliography.

Friday, 1 April 2016

Debate #3: Confessionals vs. Beats - Allen Ginsberg and Diane di Prima (Bruna and Claudia)


“I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness…”
Ginsberg, Howl
            A primeira línea de “Howl” marca o início de uma ode a um movimento que ultrapassa os limites impostos por uma cultura enraizada em ordem e controlo tanto social como literário, chegando aos apogeus da transcendência espiritual, social, psicológico e filosófico.
“The best minds”, somos nós, os escritores que criaram The Beat generation, grupo de “wannabes writers”, no entanto não aceitados pelas normas da sociedade impostas na década de 50 num contexto de pós-guerra, sofremos uma vida de decadência de vícios e manuscritos de viagens.
Somos uma geração influenciada por poetas decadentistas como: Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Whitman, Charles Olsen, Neal Cassidy, Miller, e de movimentos literários de princípios surrealistas, dadaístas, assim como do carácter impressório do jazz.
Vagueamos nas correntes do misticismo tanto oriental como ocidental (nomeadamente o budismo) e a ascensão espiritual.
Quando o Jack criou o termo como a referência à nossa geração, Beat- mind game, ele pensou numa espécie de teia de aranha que interliga conceitos como: music beat, individual clarity beatific, heart beat, intensidade da vida, o beat da máquina de escrever, beated como conceito de destruição e beat down como droga em mau estado.
Constituído por jovens cultos, com um nível de ensino superior à maioria, com interesse pelo conhecimento desde o clássico de Whitman, a importância da não interrupção do pensamento como no meu poema “Howl”, a continuidade de pensamento, usando uma pontuação própria. Liberdade de expressão que tentaram destruir em tribunal no julgamento no meu livro mas que a nossa arte soube ganhar.
Nós temos uma valorização da arte como coisa empírica, queremos apurar os sentidos e não nos minimizar ao poder confessional, trancado em quatro paredes.
A nossa subjetividade perto da provocação por vezes caracteriza o nosso movimento.
Defendemos a liberdade artística; não há temática da que não se possa escrever e sim a uma forte crítica de uma sociedade capitalista do consumismo extremo.
As mulheres Beat, ainda que num segundo plano, foram aceites e valorizadas artisticamente dentro do grupo e o exemplo mais claro é Dianne del prima com o seu livro “Loba” que mais tarde eu estabeleci relação no meu poema.
Ainda que a literatura beat seja considerada de misógina é preciso ter em conta o contexto do ideal de liberdade pessoal, que inclui a liberdade sexual vinculada à promiscuidade e à procura frenética de experiências diversas. 


Aliás, muitas das mulheres beat participaram da mesma abertura nas práticas sexuais que os homens e também escreveram sobre elas de forma explícita e obscena.
Ao contrário da poesia Confessional, a poesia beat está a procura de mudar e não só denunciar os valores da sociedade e nesta tentativa são precisos dois elementos: ação e comunidade.
Nós, os escritores beat, temos as duas coisas: uma escrita que, embora não esqueça a individualidade, usa o “we” e tem noção do concento de grupo; e por outro lado, além da denúncia à repressão e à injustiça social, assim como o protesto a favor da livre escolha sa forma de viver fora dos padrões marcados; conciliamos todo o nosso grito de protesto com a nossa atitude inconformista e transgressora.
 No contexto beat, a emancipação da mulher é protagonizada pelo proclamar da liberdade sexual e pessoal que ajuda ao nascimento de um novo modelo de mulher forte, ativa (tanto sexualmente como intelectualmente) e independente.
 Não foram tantas mulheres a participar no movimento beat como homens devido à pressão social que a mulher padece agora nos anos 50, deve-se a uma dificuldade no entendimento da sua independência comparada com a do homem, sendo que a dificuldade e a coragem requerida para fugir de casa dos pais tem ainda mais valor.
 Não é difícil reparar com que facilidade uma mulher solteira fora de casa dos seus pais é associada à prostituição, ainda que tenha recebido uma boa educação, como é o nosso caso.
            Aliás, a experiencia de fazer parte da geração beat tornou possível um intercâmbio artístico que deu nascimento, por parte das mulheres que integraram o grupo, à criação de uma poesia que explora, desde uma perspetiva feminina, questões tradicionalmente associadas ao papel masculino como a experimentação sexual, a vida boémia, a independência pessoal e monetária, interligadas com temáticas propriamente femininas como a maternidade.
A junção de temáticas literárias, associadas tanto ao cliché masculino como ao feminino, faz da escrita das mulheres beat um primeiro passo para desfazer os estereótipos de género e integrar as mulheres na categoria de escritoras, assim como de pessoas com o mesmo direito profissional, politico, sexual e social que os homens.

Debate #3: Confessionals vs. Beats - Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton (Diogo, Tereza, Ana Margarida)


My name is Robert Lowell. I’m an American poet, and my book Life Studies was the first collection of poetry to be called “confessional”, for being extremely personal and self-revelatory. For instance, in my poem Skunk Hour, I wrote the lines “My mind’s not right” and “I myself am hell”, openly referencing my struggle with manic depression. This influenced the writing of my two colleagues, Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton, and as such, we decided that I would do the opening statement.
First, we must say that, in a way, it might seem impossible to compare beat poetry and confessional poetry: the themes we write about are fundamentally different. While the beats are anti-conformist, and their writing is most often a protest against society and social norms, confessional poetry is much more introspective and personal – we often write as a form of therapy, to discover ourselves. However, it could be argued that all poetry serves to understand humanity; also, the themes in our poetry can often be concerned with society as well, and we have also made a social impact through our writing – because of that, and also because we are contemporaries, it is not unreasonable to compare us. But what we are here to discuss today is our poetry’s attitude towards the female gender, and the impact it had on the way HOW society viewed women. For that matter, we will be focusing on my colleagues’ poetry, as female poets, and not my own.
So, on one side, we have Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton, female confessional poets. They mostly write about their lives, and their poetry is extremely personal, often very specific to themselves (something for which confessional poetry has been criticized). But, by being personal, their poetry is also universally appreciable, and not so constrained by the writers’ historical and social context, reaching a wider audience. This means that these strong female voices, pledging their independence and value as individual people, have the ability to reach the minds of anyone who chooses to read them (not just the educated members of society who are used to reading poetry), and in this way, they have the power to actually change people’s idea of the female gender and its role in society. This is not only art for the intellectual, but for all women to feel empowered and all people to rethink their prejudice. As an example, let’s remember Plath’s powerful end to her poem Lady Lazarus: “Out of the ash / I rise with my red hair / And I eat men like air”.
On the other side, we have the beat poets. They write about their experiences as well, but in a way that is much more specific to their own lives and their social context. They support social change, and consider themselves to be fighting for it, but when it comes to women, their actions are highly misogynistic. One of the greatest examples of this is also one of the greatest examples of beat literature, Jack Kerouac’s On The Road, where female characters are seen exclusively as objects for the men to satisfy their desires, and not at all as individuals who deserve the same respect and freedom as their male counterparts. These writers are perpetuating and exacerbating a very harmful view of the female gender in their society.

The beats may argue that they let women join the beat movement and that they were thus acknowledging women's equal status. But this argument fails at two points: first, the women participating in the beat movement were only a small fraction of all women the beats encountered, and if they only behaved nicely to these few women, it still does not outweigh their predominant misogynist attitude; second, the women who participated in the beat movement tend to oppose the notion that they were treated as equals to the male beats – for example, Joyce Johnson, Kerouac's girlfriend, writes in Minor Characters: A Beat Memoir: “The whole Beat scene had very little to do with the participation of women as artists themselves. The real communication was going on between the men, and the women were there as onlookers. You kept you mouth shut, and if you were intelligent and interested in things you might pick up what you could. It was a very masculine aesthetic.”
In addition to that, when we consider both our movements together – their “larger” purpose, as poetry, being to come to an understanding of humanity – we can say that confessional poets dare to venture much deeper into themselves, their perspective is more profound – often even having therapeutic effects –, while beat poetry can often be superficial and immature. So if the common purpose of our movements is to understand humanity, then we are serving that purpose better.

Wednesday, 30 March 2016

HW for April 5 - Malcolm X

Comment on the rhetoric strategies used in "The Ballot or the Bullet" (1964) to create allegiance or non-alignment to different addressees and ideas of democracy.

Sylvia Plath reads "Daddy"


• Non-stop writing during 5, 10, 15 or 20 min.
• Never lift pen from paper

• If you have nothing to write, write "I have nothing to write (or “Eu não tenho nada para escrever”) (as many times you need)
• Pay no heed to grammar, ortography, style or coherence
• Do not cross over or rewrite (write the new idea, but leave the old one)
• This is a personal and private exercise; shraing will depend on the will of the author and will never be for assessment.


ADVANTAGES

• It generally demistifies and makes us comfortable with the act of writing

• Helps to overcome writer's block and self-sensorship
• Perspectivates writing as an activity that is also physical, requiring predisposition and availability of the body
• Helps search for writing topics / brainstorming

• Helps to find motivations for writing
• It is a self-discovery tool, a verbal expression of the I and of empowerment through writing.
• It is useful to define characters, settings or situations

• Indicators point to improvement in writing skills, especially in English as a Foreign Language

Tuesday, 29 March 2016

Glossary of Literary Movements

A good resource for diverse Modernist and Post-Modernist (mainly) Poetic movements, including the Beats and Confessional Poetry: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/learning/glossary-terms?category=schools-and-periods

Ted Hughes's Letter to Sylvia Plath (by Ana Fialho and Bárbara Borges)


Dear Sivvy,

Time goes by slowly when you’re lonely. Your child has now seen April Snowdrops, Indian Pipes, everything that was grand or classical, but, my dear, his sky is sometimes without a star. I too see it has none now. Under his eyes there are marks of one who is troubled yet, underneath his worry, underneath his tumultuous anxious gaze lie those dark clear ingenuous eyes, its light sometimes dimmer, sometimes dazzling, sometimes sparking.
Mystery still haunts me as I wonder what it was that made you wring and wring your hands, your body? My dear, how was he not a star in our bedroom’s ceiling?
He is a wrinkled stalk, she is too, I am a stalk stepped on, trampled, cut. You were and we still are in this zoo waiting patiently for colours and ducks. I forever wonder where you were, they forever wonder who you were. 
My dear, I regret how the events turned out. Yesterday, I received a strange package with the date 12th February 1963. Inside, a peculiar letter said the following:

Dear Mrs. Plath,

Once upon a time I was dead too. I did not need to try to be dead. I was dead. Twice for that matter. My brain slowly deconstructed itself and as time passed the emptiness invaded my soul. I was weak, at that time. So fragile that the thinnest drop of water would fill me up like the ocean.
The world looked at me as if I was already the corpse, as if my blood had stopped running and my body was starting to smell like the river bottom, dark green algae, still in space and time. I kept very still, I waited. I waited so long I learned how to become the Berlin Wall. I was the Berlin Wall. I am a wasted Berlin Wall. At a young age I was dead. I survived not to tell the story. Multitudes gathered around not to look at me, though I was dead. And people like seeing the dead. But, like I said, I survived.
I am now old. Too old to live the life that was set out for me. I am an old, quiet woman, I am still. I do not bother the world. The world breathes without me. Two decades in and is now time to see the dead. To feel the dead. I imagined you immortal, at least as mortal as me. You surprised me, I do not believe.
It is indeed “the theatrical”. I was melting, I was dying and people moved along me, didn’t see me, and I saw them. But it wasn’t about me. It still isn’t. It’s about you, who died, and me, who fights to be alive again. It’s about me, the Lady Lazarus. To be.

Yours,
Lady Lazarus, to be.

You can imagine my surprise to read such accounts, which, I suppose, could not complete their purpose. They seem so ironic now that you are gone. I fancy that perhaps if they had reached your hands, if they had been sent a day earlier, they could have saved you. They could have stopped what I could not. 

Questioning, wondering,